McPherson college, McPherson, Kansas, Wednesday, may 17.1933



McPherson Ranks Fourth in Contest at Baldwin Saturday— Ottawa Takes Second Honors with 44 Points— Kansas Wesleyan Ranks Third

Juniors and Seniors Looking Forward to Annual Event

The college Junior-senior banquet will be held at the Brethren Church. Friday evening at seven o'clock. Guy Hayes, president of the class, appointed Mary Miller general chairman.

Corrine Bowers, Paul Sherfy, and Audrey Groves constitute the menu committee. The program was planned by a committee composed of Gulah Hoover. Blanch Harris, and Delvis Bradshaw. This banquet Is an annual affair and always proves s popular event for the members of the senior class when they are honored by the Juniors. The banquet dinner will be served by the ladies of the church.





It will be nice today after all. It won't be so bad to walk the other mile of the way. Now. Isn't this nice; I'd Just decided I could walk a short distance when another car, this time a rattly Ford—but you must admit a Ford Is better than walking—stops rigid at my side, so to speak. Every-thing Is going fine. We've even reached Barber's. Yes. here Is another early bird trudging to his daily studies, so that he may catch the

!worm some other day. He Is picked up and is duly grateful, when—Bang. Yes, It's a blowout. If I don't have  the worst luck. I sometimes think that perhaps It would be better If I used my own locomotive power the entire distance, than to get In and

I out of vehicles so often.

Oh. here is one of the Juniors that used their automobiles to take the others on the sneak. He can afford to be nice to a sophomore (or freshman) today, after all the fun he had



"Progress and Promise" is Completed—Committees at Work To Make Production Outstanding Success—

Della Lehman Is Directing


Four McPherson Bulldogs Compete '—Mile Run Most Exciting Event

The Baker University Wildcats spilled dope at Baldwin, Saturday, to win their, ninth consecutive Kansan conference track and field meet by piling op a total of 59 points, while their nearest competitor. Ottawa, placed 15 points behind the Wildcats with a total of 44 for second honors.

Kansas Wesleyan, doped for first honors, ranked third with 37; McPherson, fourth, scored 16, and Bethany, fifth with 7.

The mile run was the most exciting ing closely contested event of the day. San Romani of Bethany, running about 15 yards behind Christ, closed the distance near the finished tape and leaped ahead of the Bakerite to touch the string three Inchon ahead of his competitor. Running for third place. Hards of Wesleyan. likewise nosed out Grafrath of Baker.

Rock of McPherson broke the only record of the meet when he heaved the Javelin 178 feet 8 Inches to better his mark of last year which was 174 feet 2 1/2 Inches. Boxberger, winning the shot put and discus, and taking fourth in the Javelin, won the


Must Arrange Absences with Teacher—Failures Cannot Enroll

In the weekly faculty meeting last Friday morning, among the motions passed were two of especial Interest to students. They concern absences and failures and are as follows:

Agreed that excuses for absence should be arranged with the teacher in the course from which the student wishes to absent himself. No blanket excuses from class or work of any kind are to be Issued from the Dean’s office. It Is also to be understood that no student Is excused from any work whatever the cause of the absence. Upon the return of the student. he Is expected to proceed to make up all work under the direction of the teacher In charge. In cases where a dissatisfaction occurs the student. The teacher, and the Dean will confer to decide on the policy to be adopted for the Individual case.

Agreed that any one falling to make a passing mark In one half of the work for which he is enrolled automatically becomes a probation student. Unless such probation Is removed by the end of the semester in which It Is received, said student becomes Ineligible to re-enroll and Is automatically dismissed from the college. The probation can be removed only by the completion of his work. All "incompletes" will be counted as failures only In determining probation.



On Monday evening at 8:00 o'clock In the college chapel a number of grade school children gave a recital. They were all pupils of Miss Fern Lingenfelter, college music Instructor.

Those who took part were Arthur Fries. Ann Jeanette Carpenter. Anita Mullins. Sadie Ann Galle. Dorothy Mae Fillman. Mildred Allison. Johnny Walter. Frances Allison. Jimmy Ferguson. Virgil Westling. Made-lynne Carlson, and Mary Elizabeth Rape.

McPherson college


Many Help Decorate—School Appears Several Times on Day's Program

McPherson College Is entering a float In the All Schools Day parade this morning. It has been appropriately decorated In red and white. Dr. J. Willard Hershey and Miss Clara Colline have been In charge of the decoration. John Harnly kindly lent his car to be used for the occasion

A number of students worked hard yesterday getting the float ready for today. Marjorie Barber and Lets Wine were at the head, with the assistance of Marlene Dappen. Elrae Carlson. Dave Duncanson, ..Elaine Beard. Verna Mae Severtson. Cleora Follmer. Helen Webber. Martha Unruh. Gladys Riddell, and Dorothy Feary.

McPherson College Is taking an ac tive part In today's program. This morning a Quadrille was danced at the crowning of the queen by a greet of students from the physical train in classes; the different art depart ments have entered their handiwork In the exhibits; and tonight the Thespian club will give the three-act farce comedy. "The Importance of Being Earnest."


Wine Chosen to Head Class for Next Year

Newell Wine was chosen president of the Juniors early Friday morning when they held a class meeting to elect officers for next year.

The other officers are as follows; Paul Sherfy, vice-president; Lester Pole, secretary; Corrine Bowers, treasurer; and Wilbur Voder and Gulah Hoover, student council representatives.

A short business session took place In order to discuss banquet plans.

It would be raining this morning! Now I'll have to go the long way round; the short cuts are all too muddy. I hope I get at least one ride. I'm Just about too early, though, because I’ve an eight o'clock class. That wouldn't make much difference If the ones that drove cars started at 7:80. but they don't; they can start at ten minutes of eight and make it easily. Oh. well. I might as well get started.

It isn't raining as much as It was. Perhaps It will quit before I go very far. Maybe I'm not so early alter all—here comes a car. Aw, It went right on by. It must have been somebody who works at the refinery, for If It had been someone who lived on the Hill they would have picked up a poor college student .

I hear a car that is coming pretty fast—It probably won’t stop. But It has. Good. Maybe I won't have to walk to school after all—at least all the way. Say this is a nice car. I

Wed.. May 17—Behind closed for All School's Day.

College Thespian Play at Community Building.

Thurs.. May 18—Chemistry Club meeting at 4:30.

Fri., May 19 — Annual Junior-Senior Banquet at College Church.

Mon.. May 22- Narcella Severt-son's graduation recital in college chapel.

Tues.. May 23 Home economics exhibit in Science Hall at 3:00 p. m.

International Relations Club meeting.

Radium lecture In chemistry lecture room at 8:00 p. m.

Regular Y. M. and Y. W. meetings.


Home Economics Department to Give Display in Science Hall Next Tuesday


Different Classes to Take Part— —Adapts Work to Present Economic Conditions

A style show, displays In clothing and textiles, experimental work In foods and nutrition, exhibits In the field of child welfare, notebooks, and other Interesting projects will be shown at the home economics annual spring exhibit next Tuesday. May 23. at 3:00 o'clock In the home economics room* In the Science Hall. Students and ladles of the town and community are Invited to attend this exhibit.

The main event of the afternoon, show, will show models of spring outfits made by the girls In the clothing classes. Other garments will he displayed. The foods class will give experiments In the field of pastry and cake baking. The child welfare class are planning posters and infant exhibits. Notebooks will be displayed by students of the cos-time design, houseplanning. and nen's home economics classes.

The home economics department cakes this means of presenting to the public the fine type of work that It Is doing. It attempts to adapt Its work to the present economic conditions. Miss Helen McIlrath, the home is enemies Instructor. Is In charge Of the exhibit.    \


Hershey to Speak In Chemistry Room —Demonstrations

Next Tuesday evening at 8:00 p. m. in the chemistry lecture room the an-nual radium lecture under the auspices of the chemistry society will be held.

Dr. J. Willard Hershey will give the talk and In the demonstrations to follow will have the help of the chemistry assistants The public Is cordially Invited as usual.

wouldn't mind having one to drive to school. What's that? You turn south here? All right. Thanks a lot.

That was something, wasn't It? But then, two or three blocks saves that much walking. And shoes do cost money, even in these hard times.

It's thundering. I do believe it is going to rain again It Is! And I'll bee soaking wet by the time I got to college. Thank heaven, another car' Is stopping. It Isn’t such a nice car, but It does have a top on It, so at least I won't get wet. Now, I wonder what is wrong. The driver has Just remembered she has to go home after a hook that Is due in the library. That means I'll have to walk some more. I wish Miss Heckethorn would excuse her just this once at least. If I were librarian. I believe I'd think about the people who bad to walk If someone with a big car didn't pick them up.

What a relief, I can see the sun peeping through the clouds. Maybe



"Comprehensive Examinations in American Colleges" by Edward Salford Jones has conic Into our library during the past week. It is divided Into two parts, the first descriptive and the second quantitive studies. The book explains the English and American systems of examinations and bulb the students and alumni's attitudes towards them. It gives a full treatment of the subject.



New Sets and Costumes in "The Importance of Being Earnest”

Tonight at the City Auditorium the college. Thespian Club will again produce "The Importance of Being Earnest", a three-act farce comedy by Oscar Wilde. The play will be a fitting climax for All Schools Day when the county graduates are guests.

Ada Brunk has been acting as coach and an usually well-polished production Is promised. New and Interesting sets will be used. The first act lakes place In an interior at Half-Moon Street. The second scene is laid In a beautiful garden. The third Is another Interior, but an altogether different set is used.

This play was well-liked when it was given March 30 and 31 in the college chapel. Those who did not son It then will be glad lo enjoy this presentation tonight. A performance seen for the second time would still be Interesting for different sets and new costumes will be used.

The cast has been working bard polishing lines and pointing up ac-tion under the direction of Ada Brunk and Miss Della Lehman. Those who are in the cast are Donald Ev-ans. Fred Nace. Blanch Harris, Una Ring. Edith Bechtelheimer. Maxine Ring. Marjorie Brown. Hobart Hughey, and Delvis Bradshaw.


Music Chairman Is In Charge of Y. W. C.-A. Program

The program In Y. W. C. A. yesterday morning was In charge of the music chairman. Bernice Dresher.

Several of Mrs. Roland Jones' expression students gave readings. Those who read were Donna Joy Steinex. Sunny Boy Smith. Anita Joy Smith and Althea Carmina San Romani. Bernice Fowler gave a musi-cal reading accompanied by Gulah Hoover. Bernice Dresher and Warner Nettleton sang a duet.    

(Continued on Page Three)


Winston Cassler, Mrs. A. Rolander, and Mrs. Rush Holloway Arranging Munir

"Progress and Promise", the pageant to be presented by the senior class of McPherson College, has been completed and both Individual and group practices have been held. The date for the pageant has been set for May 31 at 8 o'clock at the Brethren Church on College Hill.

Miss Della Lehman Is directing the pageant and Winston Cassler, Mrs. Arthur Rolander, and Mrs. Rush Holloway are composing and arranging the music.

This production Is unique in that It Is a history of McPherson College from the time of its founding on the prairies of Kansas In 1887 up In the present time.

Those Inking part In the drama are Dorothy Dresher who will represent The Prairie; George Zinn, Indian: Pioneers. Vernon Rhoades and Odessa Crist; Christian Education. Genevieve Crist: Church, Grace Heckman; City of McPherson. Ruth Nigh; McPherson College. Charles Austin: Herald, Delbert Kelly; Truth. Gretta Wilms Griffis; Light, Florence Dresher; Fahnestock Hall, Lloyd Larsen; Sharp Hall. Ward Williams; Gymnasium. Loren Rock; Library. Ada Brunk: Arnold Hall,

Bernice Fowler: Kline Hall. Hope Nickel; College Church. Lilburn Gottmann; Harnly Hall. Harvey Shank; Kansas. Elsie Rump; Nebras-ka. Tillie Heldebrecht; Missouri,  Milton Early; Louisiana. Melvin Landes: Colorado. Donald Dresher; i New Mexico, Elizabeth Holzemer; Oklahoma. Millicent Nyquist: Texas. A. W. Hands; Idaho. Esther Brown;

Iowa. Clarice Evans Minnesota. El-len Steinberg; North Dakota, Raymond Dunkirk; South Dakota, Milo Stucky; Mt. Morris. Galen Ogden; Alumni. Eunice Almen; Children. Students of the Future. Ardis Hershey and Mary Jo Dell; Doubt, pearl Walker.

Committees are at work to make this presentation one of the most outstanding the college has over given.

Committees working on the pageant are the costume, publicity, writing, stage and lighting, and the pageant committee. Members of the costume committee are Pearl Walker, Odessa Crist, Elsie Rump. Elizabeth Holzemer. Esther Brown. Clarice Ev-ans. Ellen Steinberg. Tillie Heide-brecht. Those working on the pub-licity group are Lloyd Larsen. Donald Dresher. Grace Heckman, and Ward Williams. Stage and lighting effects will be cared for by Raymond Buskirk. Loren Rock. Lilburn Gott-mann. George Zinn. Delbert Kelly. Harvey Shank, Milton Early. and Melvin Landes. The pageant committee consists of Hope Nickel, Bernice Fowler, and Ada Brunk. Florence Dresher. Genevieve Crist. Millicent Nyquist. and Ruth Nigh make up the properly committee.



Different Students Discuss Problems of Lower Class

A special chapel was held by the Freshman class last Thursday In which Items of purely freshman Interest were discussed.

The program Included these subjects: "What My Freshman Year Has Meant to Me" by Clarence Sink. "What I Would Do Again" by Margaret Schwartz, "What I Like About McPherson College" by Leone Shirk.

Ronald Vetter gave a plana solo. Others who were on the program Included Edna Bengston and Willard Brammel. The college songs and yells were given and a copy of the school's yells was presented to each member. Each member was questioned as to whether they were returning next year to McPherson College.

Subscription Rates for One School Year $1.00


Editor-in-chief     Una

Associate. Editor .    Wilbur

Associate Editor    Everett

Sports Editor --- Wilbur

Agnes Bean

Dorothy Dresher Marlene Dappen

Pauline Decker

REPORTERS Elmer Staats Lola Hawkins

Paul Heckman Maxine Ring


The student is sometimes slow to recognize the value of all campus The organization may be old and its work becomes habitual on the campus. Its work goes on quietly but Its power Is none—the less effective.

The Y. M. C. A.. an on organization on our campus. has accomplished much. True It has worked quietly for the most part, but it has been the agency through which a small group of students have reaped positive benefits.


Margaret Schwartz visited her brother at his home at Manhattan • he last week end.

Wheeler Kurtz was a week end guest of Gordon Kraus at his home at Tampa.

Leone Shirk and Leona Benhardt went to their homes at Ramona Friday and returned to the campus Monday.

Edith Bechtelheimer, Lois Lackey, Pearl Walker, and Delbert Kelly accompanied Guy Hayes to his home near Galt Saturday night. They returned Sunday night.

Mr. and Mrs. G. N. Griffis. Gretta Wilma and Grace Lerew entertained Mrs. Ellen Wagoner and her daughters Beth and Jo at Saturday night dinner. An Indian menu was served.

J. If. Fries accompanied the track team to Baldwin, Friday.

The spectator

Official Publication of McPherson College Published by Students Council McPherson. Kansas.



_ Entered as second class matter November 20, 1917 at the postoffice at McPherson. Kansas under the act of March 3. 1897


McPherson. Kansas


H. Ring Business Manager    Harry Frantz

c.. Yoder Ass't Business Manager    Melvin Landes

Fasnacht Ass't. Business. Manager    Paul Booz

C. Yoder Circulation Manager    Everett Fasnacht

Etta Nickel Leland Enberg Margaret Oliver Jo Wagoner

. Prof. Maurice A. Hess

The need of the campus is that more men participate In this organiza-tion. The Y. M. C. A. specializes in student problems and operates for the benefit of the students alone. One may get “fed up" on religion and stay away from meeting, but In this organization the student creates the pro-gram for himself. If this organization fails to aid the men of the college, it In because they do not attempt to solve their problems.

For a better student body. for a better Y. M. C. A. and for a better M. C. come to the meeting and participate in our programs.


“I know that question as well as anything" is a favorite expression on examination day. Fretting and worrying at this time will be In vain and make the situation worse.

A systematic review of this semester's work will be beneficial to the student. It will give him a sense of confidence on examination day. Then, too, a course after it has been taken requires organization. To end the semester effectively one must make a good grade In his course.

But the spirit that there is still time to review will destroy the advantage of review. Cramming is destructive both for its immediate consequences and as a habit.

Begin now to review for that final examination two weeks hence.


In the personnel of a college may be found a wide variety of social ideals and life ambitions, Unless these peculiarly different mind-sets are aligned Into a unit of co-operation, their association is not beneficial; Co-operation and not conformity, is the cornerstone of a successful school.

The explanation for this is In the expressive nature of Individuals. Each faculty member feels that the school life is a pliable medium for the conduction of his Ideals and principles of management, behavior and morality. For this reason the faculty meets to present and draft sets of regulation controlling the actions of their students. To describe these regulations as dictatorial is fair In view of the stand taken by their author as frequently voiced thus: If you won't conform to the regulations that we set up. we don’t need you here.’ Perhaps educated specialists have a right to experiment with youth: and youth should in turn choose their college by the Ideals which it maintains and having once chosen, subject themselves to the moulding hands of others.

The ambitious student, on the other hand, has an even keener desire tor self-expression than his instructor; he is in the creative stage of his life and is Impelled with wholesome zeal to develop the attitudes which are natural and inherent in himself. He gladly accepts guidance but rebels against control. As long as an Institution is not perfect, he reasons. It should be open to the contribution which he confidentially feels that he can make. Perhaps Impetuous youth has a right to suggest that their faculty accept the role of mechanical Instructors and allow them to loss their conflicting ideals into the melting pot and tolerate the ridiculously uncertain character of the resultant amalgamation.

If cooperation is desired. It Is Imperative that these conceptions he Abandoned. There is however, a Justification for both faculty and student to maintain a firm stand at the proper place. The college is the lifework of Its administration; therefore society owes him the privilege of laboring to advance the theories of behavior that he believes right and Ideal. The student should not forget that the faculty must answer for the personal appearance of their school. Likewise the student claims the privilege of leaving to his Alma Mater a contribution which reflects the Ideals that he believes progressive and enlightening, He is expected in be proud of his school and becomes embarassed when he cannot boast of its ideals and


A frank recognition of the ambitions and responsibilities of both faculty and student-body is the only way to Insure cooperation in a college. Co-operation Implies working as a unit, the power of unity attracts respect and admiration which to a school means honor and success.—Blue Ridge College Reflecter.


Are students sure that they are boosting in their attitudes toward M. C.? To help our school we must be sure that we are boosters and not knockers.

A student may attend all of the football and basketball games, he may take part in many student activities. but still he may not be a booster. In fact he may do all this but still be detrimental to the college.

The outsider's altitude toward McPherson College will In the long run depend upon the personal conduct of the students, the. type of the activities In which he participates, and his own attitude toward the school In the true sense we cannot become M. C. boosters and maintain a low standard of personal attitudes and conduct.

The textbook today is a better teaching Instrument than It has ever been—free In treatment, less “text bookish". To secure scientifically made books, publishers select authors who furnish that kind of material.—R. R. Buckingham. Howard University.

Tomorrow education for leisure will be as vital to our civilization as education for labor has been In the pint.—James E. Rogers. Nat. Recreation Ass’n.

The art program for secondary schools has changed. Freehand drawing no longer appears on the curriculum. Art appreciation has taken its place.—Indianola Wilcuts. Art Supervisor, Duluth.

Gloria Patri—Palestrina The Legend—Tschaikowsky Listen to the lambs-- Dadt

Guide Me. O Thou Great Jehovah (Male Quartet)

Abide With Me (Male Quartet) Tenebrae Factae Sunt—Palestrina O Watchers of the Stars—Cain Steal Away (Male Quartet)

Send Forth Thy Spirit — Schuletky Lord God of Hosts—Tschaikow-sky

The Lord Bless You—Lutkin



The World Economic Conference to be held In London on June 12 has been chosen for the topic of the International Relations Club far its fi-nal meeting.

The topics that have been assigned include: monetary problems, the world price levels, movement of cap-ital, trade restrictions, tariff, and the International organization of trade. The election of next year’s officer's will be held at this meeting.

Announcement has been made of the marriage of Miss Lois Kittell of this city to Elmer Keck on Sunday, May 14. Mr. Keck Is a graduate of McPherson College. The hapyy couple are now at home In an apartment on South Walnut Street.



Narcella Severtsons graduation recital will be held on May 22 In the college chapel. After this program Miss Severtson will be granted a teacher's certificate. She will be assisted by Warner Nettleton. tenor, accompanied by Ann Heckman, and Mary Miller, reader. The following numbers will be presented:

Andante Varie. F Minor—Haydn Miss Severtson Savior, Breath Forgiveness O'er Me, from Stabat Mater—Rossini Mr. Nettleton Cadiz—Albeniz Mazurka—Albeniz Deuxieme Scherzo—Karganoff Miss Severtson

In Native Worth front Creation— Haydn

To a Hill Top—Cox

Mr. Nettleton Liebestraum A flat Major—Liszt Maiden's Wish—Chopln-Liszt Miss Severtson The Highwayman—Alfred Noyes Miss Miller Polonaise E Minor— MacDowell Miss Severtson



Clarice Evans and Helen Webber Prepare Short Play

A special Mother's Day program prepared by Clarice Evans and Helen Webber was presented in chapel last Friday.

The program consisted of a short one act play which emphasized the Mother’s Day theme. In brief the play was a character sketch of an old mother who was waiting In (he railway depot to go to her son John, when she felt that she was no longer wanted by her other children. While waiting In the station the old lady was drawn into, conversation hy a sophisticated young lady, portrayed by Margaret Oliver. Helen Webber played the part of Ihe mother and Edwin Carlson depleted the role of the depot agent.


Immediately following a short rehearsal last Sunday evening, the A Capella choir went to Little River where they presented the evening’s program In the Methodist Church. The church was crowded, and scattered among the inhabitants of Little River were several “McPhersonites”.

Following the theme song the program was:    

Oh Holy Father—Palestrins



Industrial Arts Instructors Meet In Arkansas City

Prof Milton Dell attended a meeting of Industrial arts Instructors and those Interested In vocational work at Arkansas City, Kansas. Saturday. May 6.

This session was a Joint meeting of the Arkansas Valley Arts club. the Southern Kansas Arts Club, and the Oklahoma Arts Club.

In addition to the session at Arkansas City the group attended a program at the Chilloco, Oklahoma. Indian Reservation.

Prof. Dell reports an Interesting and Instructive meeting.

"What we need is tax reform.” he said. "What we need Is tariff reform: what we need Is trust reform: what we need Is social reform: what we need is money reform.”

"What you need is chloroform!” shouted a man In the crowd.


Milton Early and Charles Austin Give Advice

Frosh (rushing into library): "I want the life of Caesar."

Librarian: "Sorry, but Brutus beat

you to it."    —Colgate Banter.

Edith Bechtelheimer was absent from classes the early part of the week on account of Illness.

Pres. V. F. Schwalm gave a commencement address at Ames. Oklahoma. Friday evening. He was accompanied by Grace Heckman and Lilburn Gottmann.

Two seniors, Milton Early and Charles Austin, speaking In Y. M. C. A. this morning told what they would do again in taking a college course.

These two speakers spoke on problems of every student and especially on the areas in which college students are weak.

Milton Early stated that, college students should pay more attention to speakers on the campus and try to get conferences with them. Then, too, the the student, he said, should work to Improve himself physically.

Charles Austin stated that scholarship was the motive of the student In college. By reading widely, catting daily assignments, and forming attitudes we can attain that scholarship. Also It is necessary that a student should not try to be proficient In too many activities, Mr. Austin stated.

Carol Whitcher had charge of devotionals.


Mistress: "Mary, when yon watt at table tonight far my guests, please don’t wear any jewelry.'’

Maid: ”I have nothing. valuable, ma'am, but thank you for the warning.”    —Exchange.


Fifty Million Feet Spell So Many Million Miles to Romantic Young Man Who Daydreams Instead of Studying

Well, I hate to throw away such a good opportunity to express myself In words to my fellow friends, classmates. and daily grinder. so I produce this masterpiece.    

To tell you the truth I don't see why In the world I most be given an article to write when I have one • thousand and two other things to do —three themes, two reports, one laboratory notebook, one magazine article to read, one hygiene inspection to make, ten dates to fulfill (some with the professors,'others with the cute little thing) a woodwork project to finish. seven back papers in rhetoric to do— and the other 976 things.

But say. do I want school to be out or not—why Just two weeks left

......and all my fun is over, almost.

Of course It'll be grand to be home and sleep until 10 a. m.—unless I drive that tractor—then I'll have to get up at 5 bells.

Whoo-I wonder will SHE write to me as often as I scribble to her this summer. Gotta take that mat ter up on the next date we have. Oh. and then I gotta be sure she "crosses her heart and hopes to die" she won't take any other dates In my absence.

Maybe I ought to ask her to come see me some time this vacation And maybe I might to go to see her at least three times—but once will be good to make that enormous distance. Gee—I think It’s awful her being stuck up In that dorm room 50 feet away from me, but then this summer she'll be 50,000,000 feet away from me which is indeed Just 50,000,000 feet too far.

Oh. and when I think of exams coming on—do I feel my feet shrinking in my shoes or myself getting smaller. I feel as If I could have used that perfectly good day when we got vacation for heating the Swedes to do this mental labor—but alas, I failed In do It then. Oh. I guess this is some old world anyway.

What did you say roommate!—

Yeah, It's Learn, Live, and Love.

’Tis true. brother, true. Oh. there goes—tripping over the walk. I must be with her all these spare minutes I don't study 'cause Just think those minutes soon will be seconds and then no seconds at all. Anyhow I hope at least half of these good old eggs here on the campus come hack next year. And say—I hope She will he among us! DO I?

But It wouldn't have done as much good, for tiny (but dangerously blond) Carmina San Romani appro-printed him and patted his hand throughout the program.


I have Just finished reading "Larry". The book has Impressed me more than any other I have read for a long time. I was not only Impressed, but I was also fascinated. I would willingly sit down and read It again—and then again. I know others have enjoyed It. and yet others will enjoy It In the future.

Larry's thoughts, problems, and Ideals are all very real to him; what Is more, they become fully as real to anyone who reads the book. Larry, the college boy, Is like many another college boy. here and elsewhere. He was active and fun-lov-ing, but he saw the serious things of life, and soon became a leader of his class. That he was conscious of his responsibilities Is shown In his Intensely human letters to Girl, and In his affectionate ones to bis family. His Ideas are expressed even more clearly and frankly Is the pages of his diary which are given.

The Association Press gives the fol-

All chairs in the library of the


(Continued from Page One)

then. Ah. we are even getting through the draw. Say. am I glad I don't have to use the sidewalk. It is really submerged. I didn't realize It had rained that much. There's Deardorff just coming out of Hess's, and I believe that's Tice at the corner. Wonder If we'll pick them up. For cat’s sake, what has happened to the lofty Junior's car? It has certainly stopped. Out of gas! I might have known my luck hadn’t changed. Anyway I can talk to the two Ruths while I continue on my Journey, wearily but patiently..

"I wonder If they will have the track meet today?" says one. "I think they ought to?"

"Yes, they are still planning to. even If It did rain. One of the other girls called me up this morning. She had heard some other kids from Wichita were hitch-hiking here In order to see It."

I Just simply can't refrain from remarking: "Here's hoping they don't have to change chauffeurs as often as I have in the last mile and a half."

"Why. didn't you ride clear out here in one car?”

"No I didn't. Not that I rode In them all at once. I'm not a quintet, or triplets, or even twins. I took them one at a time. In succession." And I begin to give an account of my morning's travels.

Honk! H-o-n-k ! H-O-N-K ! ! !

Yes, we finally heard that. We got Into an automobile that Is already packed almost to a sardine-can density. I can't give the excuse to them that I'd rather walk. Besides I'd rather be a sardine with a lot of others, than a student walking to an eight o'clock class by myself. Full as It is, the creaking mass weight of tin and young college life finally reaches the campus and we literally fall out—at least some of ns do.

‘‘Thanks for the buggy ride." I hope they ask me again some time. But next time I get a ride to school, I hope It Isn’t In Installments.


If you saw Alex Richards cavort-ing about the campus yesterday an a white-faced clown, you can now realize that he was only Melvin Landes's brain-child of make-up.

The people at Little River seemed to enjoy the A Capella programs very mark Sunday night. One old fellow even sang "Abide with Me' right along with the quartet--much to the amusement of the surrounding audience.    

The senior are still keeping everyone in suspense as to when they will sneak. When anyone borrows knickers or pajamas suspician runs riot Melvin Landes informed someone that they were leaving June 2. And maybe some others, too?

All Schools Day today! Too had we couldn't all ride in the college float. But the a lot of those who worked hours on it yesterday see it go by as they stand in the sun.

When Forney's lawn-mower made so much noise that Schwalm's class was muchly Interrupted, the latter slated. "That's what technocracy does for the country."

We understand that Bernice Fowler In the principles of Interpretation class on heckling (you know—Intermixing the speaker to see If he can retain his poise)—well, to get back to the story—they say that Bernice could make such remarks and give such cool looks that you wouldn’t want to heckle her more than once.

Imagine Blanch Harris upholding sunny California's good qualities— and he himself a native Idahoan!

Ogden always has a comeback. In a recent clam the prof said to him. "Well, that's fifth grade geography", and Ogden said "Yes, but I skipped the fifth grade".

"Every student a student solicitor" —Did yon ever hear that? It's a good motto!

A new Idea wax tried out yesterday in Arnold Hall. A new dress that was too big for the owner was hung in a prominent place and a big "For Sale” sign pinned on it. Maybe we will not be able to find the bulletin board In the future because of the clothing hanging on it.

Did you know that everyone In Dr. Schwalm's college graduating class now has a doctor's degree? (However, there were only three la the class.)

Dr. Schwalm says that he feels the need of a good vacation. From the looks of indolence around (he campus one would almost think that a few others not only feel the same way. but have already begun their vacations.

However almost everyone seems more than busy—trying to get done now what they have neglected all semester. Still the spring weather Is beginning to find couples dotting the grass of the campus.

Recently Warner Nettleton has sung a solo or two in the Y. W. C. A. meetings. Funny, how he never lingers for the rest of the program. Maybe the audience was a trifle too feminine for his (shall we say "mas-culine") mind.

Speaking of Y. W. programs, not A few of the girls decided to go back to kindergarten, for It looked as If It would be so much fun after watching the infants recite as long read-lags as some of the principles students' poems.

And that reminds ns that we were slighting one little fellow when we called the audience feminine, for he contributed his masculinity In a very grown up suit and a very grown up reading. In fact If it hadn’t been for his voice—and possibly his diminu-tive size—we might have thought he was a college student. (Might have,

I say!)

Our roach got a big pat on the back at Baldwin when the Baker coach introduced him as one of the finest fellows he had ever met. Maybe his thought wasn't altogether original.

PADDE roll

Cleo Minear .................... May 21

Millicent Nyquist ............ May 22


Chapel Speech about Increasing Enrollment-—Should Itemize Advantages

"Every student a student solicitor" was the slogan suggested by Prof. Maurice A. Hess In his speech In chapel Monday. May 15 on the increasing of the enrollment for next year.

A student as a solicitor should first of all itemize the advantages of his own school. He should find out the Interests of the prospective student and If necessary should change this Interest. The student should be so well posted that he can tell the high school graduate the requirements necessary to obtain a teacher's certificate, and the Information he desires about the extra-curricular activities.

The financial factors are probably the most important ones which will confront the student. McPherson College offers maximum education for minimum costs. Also when Jobs are scarce the costs of education are also low.

The students of the college should let their enthusiasm be contagious, so that freshmen will come because they want and not because they can’t go anywhere else.

Cooperation with the general office will tend to a more efficient organization. It Is the goal that each student should return nest fall with one new student.



Telia of students and Social Responsibility

Dr. J. D. Bright spoke In chapel. Wednesday, May 10: his topic, an expansive one. was "College Student* and Social Responsibility". Dr. Bright said that we need to realize passionately that we are living in the midst of a new economic order. He quoted the chief Justice of the Supreme Court as saying that the people of the United-States are facing an emergency greater and worse than war and that there is a great need of noble minds. The world is at one of Us greatest crossroads of history now. College students should shoulder social responsibility or someone else will. Bright said.

There are now twenty-five million men in the armies, navies and military reserves—5 million more than were armed In 1914. The Oxford Union recently started a movement, when they declared they would not fight for king or country. Such complex situations are facing the college students today.

lowing In the foreword of the book:

"Larry was the only son of Mr. and Mrs. Thomas J. Foster of Ridgewood, N. J. He was active lin school life. the Hi-T Club, the Boy Scouts and the Methodist Episcopal Church School.

"He was graduated from the Ridgewood High School when he was eighteen and entered Lafayette College in September. 1928. At the close of his sophomore year he went to Ari-zona for his summer's vacation.

"A few days before he was to return home he was asked to pose for the picture shown opposite page 145 Just as he started to ride out to watch a beautiful sunset. ("Call it The last stand of the cowboy,’ ” said Larry as he rode into the sunset. never to return.) When he did not return a search was made. Apparently bo had been sitting on the ground holding the lariat that was fastened to the saddle. Something frightened the horse and he ran. Catching the lariat on Larry's wrist, He gained his feet for about fifty yards' and then fell, hitting his head against a stump, causing instant death."

Besides showing a strong love for poetry, as is evidenced by several original poems and one or two others In the book; Larry enjoyed litera-ture. music, nature, and above. all, life. He was intensely, vitally alive to every new experience, and the render naturally wonders why dioath had to come to him so soon. I have solved that question satisfactorily for myself, but you may have a different answer. As the French say. "Chacun a son gout." At any rate, you will enjoy the book.—Bookworm.


Reporter Comments on News from Other Schools

One of the long standing customs at the University of Ottawa has been to seat the girls on one side and the boys on the other side of the chapel. Now they are being arranged alphabetically. That, according to Moore and Morrison, and Stoner and Rid-del, Is the only way.

The sophomore German class of Blue Ridge College at New Windsor Maryland is giving a play In German. The title "Ubung macht den Meister" means "Practice makes perfect”. We wonder. Don’t they sing "Die Lore-lie”!

Here is hoping you aren't as stupid about this one from The Red and Black as Marlene Dappen and Maxine Ring were. If one car leaves Reading at a speed of forty-five miles an hour, and a second car at the speed of sixty miles an hour, which machine would he closer to Reading at the time they pass each other?

Look for the answer next week.

Glass blowing may be taught In the University of Wichita In the near future If the necessary twenty students are Interested. Ten boys have already signified that they desire to enroll. Rome one around M. C. might do the good Samaritan act and persuade our hot air artists to use a little of their surplus In that way.

Dormitory students or hoarding students of Elizabethtown College gave a week-end party for the day students. The event started off with a big party, after which the students repaired to their various dorms to enjoy a sleepless night. Breakfast was a campfire affair, and In the afternoon there was tea in the social room, and later a couple basketball games. At midnight lunch was served and the party broke up.

A student at W. V. has a collection of match folders "gopher” matches estimated at one and one half bush-els. Every state In the union Is represented besides numerous foreign countries. Well there are avocation* and there are avocations.

University of California were sand-papered for the benefit of the girls stockings. The day after this article was published there appeared In the Daily Kansan editorial suggesting that a few of the chairs around the K. U. campus might stand a nickel’s worth of sandpaper and a little elbow grease. I might say that even our own campus is not free (no. not by any means) from this destructive condition, as you know If you are a girl.

Administration at Michigan State College have ruled that all students attending formal dances may cut classes after 3 p. m. the day of the dance and all classes the following morning.

Fines are collected from students at the University of Edinburgh In Scotland who cut classes for the purpose of buying the president a Christmas present. It Is rumored that last year he received a fine cigar.

The Florida Alligator published its annual "Gripe and Grievance" edition April 30. Students who wished to gripe were given column space providing they sign their names.

A group of 57 senior men with smooth and relatively clean-shaven faces gathered at the "C" bench at the University of Chicago recently to Inaugurate the annual senior "mustache derby". For two weeks, notwithstanding dates and social gatherings, the upper lips of the prospective graduates must not, under certain penalties, be desecrated by the touch of a razor. The chief penalty Is nothing less than being tossed Into the botany pond.

The University of Kansas museum has traded two moose heads to the National museum at Washington, D. C. for a camel skeleton.

And now. dear reader, poor os you may consider this offering I have a good excuse for quilling at this Juncture. As a result of the two inches of dust deposited on these papers by the wind last week I look as if I had Just crawled out from under a landslide.



McPherson Scores Heavily in Weight Events but Falls down in Middle Distance Runs—Zinn Wins Shot Put and Discus




The annual Kansas Conference track meet Is over and again Baker University has coma through and won first place. Dope was against the Wildcats this year, but they managed to score enough points to win the meet by a good margin. Ottawa finished In second place and Kansas Wesleyan, doped to win the meet, placed third In total points. McPherson, with but four men entered scored 16 points and finished fourth In total points. Bethany brought up the rear with 7 points.

The showing of the Bulldogs at the Conference meet was very good considering the limited number that were able to go. Every man who went placed In at least one event. None of the tennis men went to the Conference meet. Last year the Bulldog doubles team composed of Bin-ford-Gottmann won the conference


The most outstanding feat accomplished by the McPherson team, and probably of any other team, was Rock's record throw In the Javelin of 178 feet. This was a new conference record In this event. Rock broke the record last year and this year he broke his own record. Not only did he defeat Ills conference rivals, hut he also threw n farther distance than the winner In this same event In the Central Conference. This was the only event In which the Kansas Conference bested the Central. He also threw farther than the winner of the Kansas-Missouri dual meet on the same day. Rock will hold the challenge cup for at least one more year and possibly longer.

The diminutive Custer tied fur second In the high Jump which Is remarkable for a small man. Ho was unfortunate In that he didn't got either of the two medals. Casida of Ottawa and Hardinger of Baker who tied with Caster won the medals when they "flipped''! Custer is only a freshman and will probably go higher In his next three years.

Reinecker, a new find In the two mile. went to Baldwin and placed third In this event. He had been running the mile and the half all sea-son. but found out a few nights before the big meet that he could run the two mile. The time was good In this run and Reinecker will probably be running It faster next year.

Zinn placed second In the discus and third In the shot put at the conference classic. George Is a senior this year and he has won lota of points for the Bulldogs during his college career In these. events. Zinn has thrown the discus considerably farther than the distance that won first place in this event, but was un-able to do It at the conference meet. Zinn and Rock will be greatly missed In the weight events when next year's track season comes around.


Chemistry Club Will Meet Tomorrow — To Show Film


Custer and Wiggins Tie fur First In High Jump and Set New School Record

Friends University won the tri-angular track and field meet held at Newton yesterday by annexing a total of 58 points. McPherson finished second In total points with 40 1/2. Bethel finished last with 32 2/3 points. Friends scored heavily In the dashes and In the hurdles and gathered enough points in the other events to finish well ahead of the other two schools.

Bulldogs Lead In Weights

The Bulldogs were far superior In the weight events, but fell down on the middle distance runs, Friends made a clean sweep of the half mile and took first and second In the 4 40-yard run. Reynolds, fast dash man of the Quakers, was high point man of the meet. He took firsts In the 100 yard dash, 220 yard dash, and low hurdles, and ran a fast quarter on the winning relay team.

Custer, Wiggins Break Record

Custer and Wiggins broke the school record In the high Jump, noth of these men cleared the bar at 5 feet, 10 inches and tied with Kenni-son of Bethel for first place. Reinecker. a new find In the two mile ran a nice face only to be defeated by Landes of Bethel on the last lap.

A few men from McPherson made the remaining number of points necessary for their letter In this meet. Zinn won firsts for the Bulldogs In the shot put and discus and Rock won the Javelin as usual. Hock, Zinn. and Early who are Seniors looked good In their last track meet for McPherson College. Friends won the mile relay; the time was 3 minutes and 36 seconds.

The summary:

100-yard daah—Won by Reynolds. Friends; Bergen, Bethel. second; Early. McPherson, third. Time 10.1 seconds.

120-yard high hurdles—Won by Carr. Friends; Moore. Friends, sec-ond: Pankrantz. Bethel. third. Time. 16 seconds flat.

Mile run— Won by Landes. Beth-el; Fasnacht, McPherson, second; Kroeker. Bethel, third. Time. 4 minutes, 59 seconds.

4 40-yard dash—Won by Ashford. Friends; Jones. Friends, second; Un-rau. Bethel third. Time 54.4 seconds.

880-yard run—Won by Cates. Friends; Jones. Friends, second; Ashford. Friends, third. Time 2 min-utes 13.4 seconds.

220-yard dash- Won by Reynolds, Friends; Early. McPherson, second: Bergen, Bethel. third. Time 23.7 seconds.

Two mile run—Won by Landes. Bethel; Reinecker. McPherson, second: Pote. McPherson, third. Time, 10 minutes, 43.6 seconds.

220-yard low hurdles—Won by Reynolds. Friends; Early. McPherson, second: Pankratz, Bethel, third. Time 27.2 seconds.

Shot put—.Won by Zinn. McPherson; Moore, Friends, second: Bills, Friends, third, Distance 40 feet, 4 1/2 Inches.

High Jump Custer and Wiggins. McPherson and Kennison. Bethel, all tied for first. Height. 5 feet, 10 Inch-es.

Pole value—Won by Kennison. Bethel: Wiggins, McPherson, and Bartles and Cunningham. Bethel all tied for second. Height. 11 feet 7 3/4 Inches.

Broad Jump -Won by Swope. Friends Kennison. Bethel, second; Custer McPherson, third. Distance, 20 feet 3 3/4 inches.

Discus—-Won by Zinn. McPherson; Bock. McPherson, second: Ellis Friends, third. Distance. 123 feet.

11 inches,.

Javelin—Won by Rock. McPherson; Moore Friends, second; Krecker. Bethel, third. Distance 104 feel 8 Inches.

Mile relay—Won by Friends. Time

3 minutes. 35 seconds.


(Continued from Page One)

conference medal for high point man over Casida of Ottawa, who took first In the broad Jump, second In low hurdles and tied tor second la the high Jump.

Zinn of McPherson Placed second In the discus, and third In the shot-put. Custer tied for second In the high Jump. Reinecker placed third In the two mile ran. Besides Rock's record In the javelin he also placed third In the discus.

Dave L'Huillier. Baker golfer, won his second consecutive conference championship, and his teammate, Karl Spear. placed second. Their scores were 221 and 229 tor 54 holes. Baker also took third when Max Martin, freshman, scored 232 and Harry Lincoln of Baker and G. Johnson of Bethany tied for fourth

with 238.

Bethany took the tennis singles and doubles, with Baker second In doubles and Ottawa second in singles.

The track summaries :

One-mile run, won by Han Romani. Bethany; second. Obrist. Baker; third, D. Hards, Kansas Wesleyan; fourth. Graffath, Baker. Time, 4 minutes, 29.9 seconds.

440-yard dash, won by Wagg. Ottawa: second. Armstrong. Ottawa; third. Kassner. Kansas Wesleyan; fourthe. Spare, Baker. Time 51.9 seconds.

100-yard dash, won by Odom, Baker; second, Farrow, Baker; third, Robinson. Kansas Wesleyan; fourth. Conrod. Ottawa. Time, 10.2 seconds.

120-yard high hurdles, won by Cunningham. Baker; second. Har-dinger. Baker: third, Hart. Baker. Time. 16.2 seconds.

880-yard run, won by Keestel. Ottawa; second. Carwell, Baker; third. San Romani. Bethany: ‘ fourth. Hards, Kansas Wesleyan. Time 2 minutes, 4.4 seconds.

220-yard Dash—Won by Farrow. Baker; second. Wagg. Ottawa; third. Odom, Baker; fourth Robinson. Wesleyan. Time 23.1 seconds.

Two-mile Run—Won by Ghrist. Raker: second. Grafrath. Baker; third, Reinecker. McPherson: fourth, Fitzpatrick, Ottawa. Time. 10:21.4.

220-yard Low Hurdles—Won by Milton, Kansas Wesleyan; second, Casida, Ottawa: third, Spare, Baker; fourth. Hardinger. Baker. Time 26.8 seconds.

Mile Relay — Won by Ottawa (Coonrod. Armstrong. Keezel. Wagg) second. Kansas Wesleyan; third. Baker. Time, 3:31.4.

Pole Vault—Won by Mullen. Ottawa; tied for second. Young of Baker, Milton and Plumer of Kansas Wesleyan. Height. 11 foot. 5 Inches.

High Jump—Won by Young, Bak-er; tied for second, Hardinger of Raker. Casida of Ottawa, Custer of McPherson. Height, 6 feet 10 inches. Inches.

Shotput—Won by Boxberger. Wes-leyan; second. Jeter, Ottawa: third, Zinn. McPherson; fourth, Cunningham, Baker. Distance, 41 feet, 8 Inches.

Discus Throw—Won by Boxberger. Wesleyan; second. Zinn, McPherson; third. Rock. McPherson; fourth. Cunningham. Baker. Distance, 122 feet, 9 Inches.

Broad Jump—Won by Casida. Ottawa: tie for second. Robinson of Kansas Wesleyan. Starr of Ottawa; fourth. Mullen. Ottawa. Distance. 21 foot 6 1/2 Inches.

Javelin—Won by Rock, McPherson; second. Dyck. Kansas Wesleyan; third, Cunningham, Baker; fourth, Boxberger, Kansas Wealeyan. Distance. 178 feet. 8 Inches. New record.

Starter—K. A. Thomas.



Meet Monday Evening and Discuss Busines Matters

At a short business meeting last Monday the W. A. A. officers for next year were Installed. Those taking office were president. Elisabeth Bowman; vice president. Esther Stegeman: treasurer. Martha Hursli: secretary. Esther Pole: basketball manager. Ruth Tice; soccer manager. LeNora Johnson: health manager. Grace Lerew; volley ball, Alice Kgbort; baseball manager. Verna Mao Severtson; tennis manager. Lola Hawkins; and hiking manager, Ruth Deardorff. Lois Edwards as student council representative was also initiated.

Following the Installation the question as to whether next year's freshman girls should wear green bends was discussed. A committee was appointed to Investigate the matter.

Test Comparisons

C. C. Weidemann, University of Nebraska. to the Educational Research Association

Daring the last decade It has been contended by such authorities as Paterson. Wood. Ruch and Odell that the new type of objective examination measures achievement as Well as the unimproved written essay examination. In the main. It seems that their contention is sound. Its limitation, however, is to be found in the fact that the Improved objective types were compared with the unimproved essay examination. A more direct comparison would be between the improved new type and the improved essay examinations.

With the later thought In mind, an extensive analysis of the nature

of written essay examinations was made lasting over a period of approximately five years, The outcome of this analysis has paved the way for a series of experimental studies. The first experimental study asks the question: Docs the true-false test measure the same mental functions as the compare-contrast essay examination? Under carefully defined conditions the outcome of 28 experiments Indicates that the compare-contrast essay and the true-false test under actual classroom conditions or administration overlap In the mental functions measured to the extent of approximately 60%. Furthermore, approximately 40% of the mental functions measured by the compare-contrast essay are not measured by the true-false test; and approximately 40% measured by the true-false test are not measured by the compare-contrast essay.

These studies were extended to: make similar comparisons between the word-answer fact statment and the explain essay. Each of these studies consisted of a series of 8 experiments. In both of these latter groups of experiments, the degree of overlapping of mental functions measured Is between 50% and 60%. For the first time the evidence is available to Indicate that a comprehensive testing of achievement cannot bo realized on either objective or essay tests alone. It seems reasonable to assume that the main purpose of objective tests Is to measure degrees of mastery of facts and some of the simpler level* of reasoning ability; the more complex functions of reasoning ability seem best to be tested by the essay types of question.

To use the essay Intelligently, It becomes necessary to define accurately each type of essay to be used. Home of the more Important types are: what (also who, when, where and which), list, outline, describe, compare, contrast, explain, discuss, evaluate and summarize. Each of these concepts must be understood by the teacher and must be accurately taught to the pupils. It seems fundamentally Hound that pupils should know what teachers mean when using any one or more of the foregoing commands In an attempt lo Introduce essay questions.

The Chemistry society meets tomorrow at 4:30 p. m. for Its annual diamond demonstration and lecture. The motion picture showing the diamonds and their manufacture will he given together with an actual demonstration with the electric furnace In which the diamonds were made.

They'll Re Sorry “Isn't It dreadful? The minister's sou has derided to become a Jockey, lie was to have been a minister, you know."

"Well, he'll bring n lot more people to repentance than he would as a minister."


Industrial Arts Department Makes Visits

The practice as well as the theory of Industrial arts was observed by the members of the Teaching Industrial Arts Class last week.

The members of this class accompanied by Prof. Milton Dell visited the Industrial arts departments of Canton, Hillsboro, Florence. Newton. Moundridge. Peabody, and Marlon.

Making the trip one of observation and comparison the teachers found the trip helpful.

Was Acquainted

A negro boxer was to fight a heavyweight champ. When ho reached the ring he hung back.

"It's all right. Sam.” said his trainer. "Just say to yourself. 'I'm going to beat him.' and you'll win."

"That's no good, boss,” replied Sam. "I knows whut a liar I is."

Not Encouraging

The passenger was taking his first ocean voyage, and he was most miserable.

"Oh. steward.” he called, "how far are we off land?”

"Mile and a half, sir," replied the steward.

“Thank heaven. In what direction, steward?"    

"Straight down." was the reply.